Jumat, 26 Juni 2009

Does animal own language? (Apakah binatang mempunyai bahasa?)

Does animal own language?
(Apakah binatang mempunyai bahasa?)
A private research on linguistic by Awang darmawan
Student of English education department of IAIN Raden Fatah PALEMBANG
Email :Awangdarmawan19@gmail.com
Blog : http://awang-darmawan.blogspot.com 

“in finding nemo, a film which shows fish life in the sea. We can see directly some fishes can speak each other. They can make good communication by using human language. Many TV programs do same things. It shows that animal can speak such as Bugs bunny says good morning to people passing away.
 Not only TV programs did it also some fables or stories tell same thing. For instant the fable of Prophet Moses. He is able to communicate with some animals. As religious man we should believe it while it is difficult to understand. 
 These make people believe that animal can speak in past time and Makes some children imagining they can talk with their pet. But as student of linguistic I have big question mark on my head. “Can animal speak?” I need some scientific reasons. “

1. Definition of language 
• The system of communication in speech and writing that is used by people of particular country. 

• Human speech or written symbols for speech any means the particular style of verbal expression characteristic of person or group. 

• Language is a set of the rule used by human as the tool of communication 

By reading these sentences, we can conclude the meaning of language. Language is a system of communication including grammar, syntax, semantic, phonology, morphology, lexical, verbal expression characteristic and written symbol in speech and writing that used by human or people in a particular country.

According to our conclusion a language must have some requirements.
1. Grammar
A particular theory that is intended to explain the rules of language or in language general
2. Syntax
The rules that state how words and phrase are put together to form sentence in a language
3. Phonology
Branch of linguistic which concern the speech sound of a particular language
4. Morphology
A science which concern of the form of words made, studied as branch of linguistic
5. Lexical
Branch of linguistic which concern to mind dictionary or how or mind keeps vocabularies
6. Verbal expression
Some specifics movements of human that contains of meaning and goal.
7. Written symbol
Some complex symbols that show some meaning which is used by human in communication.

According to these definitions a language must own all of these aspects. All of communication system which doesn’t have these aspect. We can conclude it is a language.

2. How does animal communicate?

How can some organism make a life? All kinds of organism in the universe must own communication. Human who makes a life need communication among them? The ants which want to build their hole needs communication.
We will pertain animal in their communication system. We are absolutely sure that the animal is able to communicate each other. So now we can see some communication systems of animal.  

Most animal posses some kinds of signaling communication systems
For example:

• The Bees
When the bees find a food source, they will fly making two circle or eight 8 number above the food source. Their hive also shows how far it. This is their way to show food source and how far the food source from other bees .
The dance of bees is an effective system of communication for bees. His capable in principle of infinitely many different messages, but unlike human. The system is confined to a single object. 

• Monkey 
Refers to theory of evolution by Darwin, Monkey or Primate is almost similar to human body system. It is why primate is the first animal in animal kingdom hierarchy. So we still have big question “does primate has communication like human system”
A species of monkey owns a specific way to communicate. For instant: when there is a tiger running to their group, a monkey which has duty as guide will make a specific body language and specific gesture to show that the danger comes to them.

From these two examples. Animal uses some body movement, specific sound and some gestures in communication so we can conclude that. Animal owns some way for communicating yet in we can not state yet. It is a language

3. Animal communication System is a language, isn’t it?

A language should have some requirements.
A. System of language 
Language that used by human has some systems of language such as Phonology, morphology, syntax, semantic, lexical, grammar and sound. Yet animal communication System does not have some system of language. Although animal is able to produce a sound or specific motion 
in communication, animal does not have grammar like human.

B. Various languages in the world  
All people in the world has their typical language. In Indonesia as the example each regency has each specific vernacular, dialect and language. It is caused Human has ability to produce it. Each country has each language. For example Indonesian uses Bahasa Indonesia in Indonesia then Arabian uses Arabic in Middle east and also American uses English in USA. These examples shows us that human has Various languages each of them. 
 It is different with animal communication system. They use one sound to show one condition although in different country. For instant the cock in Indonesia produces “kukuruyuk” and the cock in USA also produces kukuruyuk and the cat in China produces sound “meong” and the cat in India also produces sound “Meong”. 
 In the short human have various language because human has ability to do it. But animal does not have various language because animal does not have ability like human.

C. Written symbols 
Written symbols are as a requirement of language. Although the written symbol is less important than fluent language but their function is as important as fluent language. The function of written symbol is used recording a message from fluent language into some symbols . Written symbols are born because human has ability to produce it.

4. Conclusion
  The meaning of language. Language is a system of communication including grammar, syntax, semantic, phonology, morphology, lexical, verbal expression characteristic and written symbol in speech and writing that used by human or people in a particular country. But the communication system of animal does not have some systems like human language.
 We can decide that the animal communication system is not language but we can recognize the animal communication system is a system of communication. It is so different with human language because it is not including language system. 
• Chaer abdul, linguistic umum, rineka cipta, 1994, jakarta
• Darnowijoyo, sujono. Psikolingustik, yayasan obor, Jakarta, 2003
• Fromklin victory, rodman Robert, an introduction of language, harcour collage publisher, USA, 1998
• Siahaan sangam, issuses in linguistic, graham ilmu Yogyakarta, 2008
• Hornby AS, oxford advanced dictionary of current English 6th edition, oxford university press
• Geddes, groset, Webster integrated dictionary and thesaurus, david dale house.

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